The results indicate that there is a positive relationship between growth rate of real GDP per capita and ICT use index as measured by the number of internet users, fixed broadband internet subscribers and the number of mobile subscription per inhabitants. We also find that the effect of ICT use on economic growth is higher in high income group rather than other groups. This implies that if these countries seek to enhance their economic growth, they need to implement specific policies that facilitate ICT use.
At the present time, ICT has become a serious part of economy. Almost all firms and consumers use computers and Internet connection for economic purposes, such as providing consumers with a more diversified and customized products, improving product quality, and selling goods and services. Evidently, the extension of ICT and its influences on economic growth in both developed and developing countries has increased very fast during the last two decades.
However, country data on computer, cell phone, and Internet users illustrate different ICT diffusion rates across countries and regions, ICT use indicators illustrate an increasing trend, despite the recent world economic crisis Figure 1. For example, the steady growth of the number of mobile cellular subscriptions is noticeable, reaching 67 per inhabitants by the end of globally.
This confirms that consumers are willing to continue spending part of their disposable income on mobile services - even at times of financial constraints .
In addition, the resurgence of productivity during the late s and the early s is a topic that has attracted many growth economists. ICT is the current symbol of the technological revolution and is known as the key factor driving economic growth in the industrial society . For measuring the contribution of ICT to economic growth, the most important issue is regarding to the specification of ICT.
ICT defines as a concept that include computers and other information equipment as well as computer software, that covers computers, peripheral equipment and other information-related office equipment photocopiers, cash registers, calculators , communications equipment, and instruments  , . In fact, ICT is the combination of electronics, telecommunications, software, networks, and decentralized computer work stations, and the integration of information media  , all of which impact firms, industries, and the economy as a whole.
In this article, we would like to examine the relationship between ICT use and growth rate of GDP per capita in countries. Although many researchers have provided empirical evidences for the correlation between ICT investment and economic growth, study on the impact of ICT use on economic growth is still an unexplored area. Therefore, this article would fill the literature gap on the effect of ICT use by applying the panel of countries over the period — The organization of the paper is as follows: The next section is a review of relevant studies on the impact ICT on Economic growth.
Afterward methodology and data will be presented which follows by the empirical findings and discussion. The last section concludes the article with a few issues on policy implications. The effect of ICT on economic growth has been analyzed by many authors in last decades. Most of the evidences in this area confirm that the positive effect of ICT on economic growth is not apparent before mids. Oliner and Sichel  use ICT capital components such as computer hardware, software and telecommunication equipment along with capital and labor as inputs and empirically verify a very high ICT contrition to economic growth in the late s, but they find no evidence of a positive relationship before the mids.
In , Jorgenson and Stiroh  show that the contribution of IT in economic growth of the United States is because of the substitution of computers, related equipment and services, not due to technological change. Moreover, other studies explain the significant effect of ICT on economic growth such as Brynjolfsson and Yang  , Motohashi  and Kraemer and Dedrick . Most of these studies have been reviewed by Pohjola . Jalava and Pohjola  indicate that ICT use and production quality are the most important factors in US economic growth in the s.
In addition, they provide evidence that ICT boosts growth in Finland from 0. Daveri  expands Schreyer's  study to 13 European and five others and shows a much higher contribution of ICT for each country. Both of them conclude that large European countries are far behind the US in this area.
Applying a broad data set, Van Ark et al. Despite the numerous studies, the evidence of ICT contribution to economic growth in developing countries is still scarce. For instance, Dewan and Kraemer  estimate the effect of IT investment on output growth for the panel data of 36 countries over the period —, and discuss the contrasting policy implications for IT capital investment by developed and developing economies.
They reveal that return from IT capital investment is positive and significant for the developed countries in the sample but not statistically significant for the developing ones. This study attributes this gap to the low level of IT investment as well as lack of complementary assets in developing countries.
The Economic Impact of Information and Communication Technology in Korea
They explain that complementary investments in infrastructure, human capital, and knowledge-based structures are prerequisite for IT investments to be productive which are mostly available in developed countries rather than developing ones. Moreover, Lee et al. In line with this result, Edquist  conclude that the vague impact of ICT on economic growth in developing countries may account for the late introduction of ICT in these countries; for example, Internet service was not available in most developing countries until the late s.
In this point of view developing countries may have an advantage over advanced countries with respect to ICT diffusion. Generally, we can divide the empirical evidence of the impact of ICT on economic growth to two categories based on the methodology used in these literatures. The first is studies employing the growth accounting technique, which weights growth in inputs by their share in the value of output and express the contribution of ICT to economic growth in percentage point.
It should be noted that all the above evidences are at the national level whereas there are some other studies at the firm or industry level. For instance, O'Mahony and Vecchi  , applying heterogeneous dynamic panels method with a unique dataset covering the entire non-agricultural market economy at the industry level for the US and UK from to , find a positive and significant effect of ICT on economic growth and excess returns to ICT compared with non-ICT assets.
The second category consists of researches that use cross country regression techniques to investigate the impact of ICT on economic growth. Madden and Savage  , using the sample of 27 Central and Eastern European countries, show a positive and significant impact of telecommunication investment on economic growth during the period — Roller and Waverman  also confirm a causal relationship among telecommunication investment and economic growth for 21 OECD countries over the period to Jacobsen  and Waverman et al.
Another study conducted by Koutroumpis  for 22 OECD countries during to , shows that there is a positive casual link among broadband infrastructure as a driving factor of ICT and economic growth, especially in the presence of critical infrastructure mass. Applying panel data of 29 countries, Seo et al. They only verify the positive impact of ICT on economic growth in the s. The positive and significant effect of mobile telecommunications diffusion on both economic growth and productivity growth has proven by Gruber and Koutroumpis  for countries over the period — Although ICT is well known as a driving engine of economic growth, there are few evidences that show the negative effect of ICT on economic growth.
For example, Kiley  , applying the traditional growth accounting framework in the US, explains the negative contribution of computers to economic growth due to adjustment costs. He indicates that the introduction of a new investment good like computers can impose large adjustment costs to the economy and decrease economic growth. Moreover, Pohjola  finds no significant relationship between ICT investment and economic growth for the sample of 43 countries over the period of — In another research, Jacobsen  reveals no significant positive impact of computer penetration on the economic growth of 84 countries during —, although he confirms the positive link among mobile phone and growth.
However, the empirical results of the previous studies are somewhat fragile and depend on data period specifications and econometric techniques, the dominant impact of ICT as a production input on economic growth and productivity is positive  ,  ,  ,  ,  , . Evidently, most of the literatures in the field of ICT effect on economic growth and productivity, concentrate on the ICT investment as a whole and evidence on the impact of ICT use on economic growth and productivity is scarce. Only a few studies investigate the effect of ICT use on economic performance applying different proxies such as telephone penetration estimated by number of telephones per persons  and teledensity defined as the number of fixed-line and mobile phone subscribers per persons  , .
Therefore, the main hypothesis of this paper is that the effects of ICT use as measured by the number of internet users, fixed broadband internet subscribers and the number of mobile subscription per inhabitants on economic growth is positive and significant. Combining data for the countries, we find that ICT use has a positive impact on output growth. This study uses a dynamic panel data model  to investigate the impact of ICT use on economic growth.
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The model is shown as follows:. In the above equation, the fixed effects , such as regional and demographics which are also called time-invariant country characteristics, might be correlated with the explanatory variables which violates the assumptions underlying the classical linear regression model . Moreover with regards to dynamics, the presence of lagged dependent variables will increase the autocorrelation. First differencing can solve this problem by removing such fixed effects, as follows:. There are still following econometric problems in the estimation of equation 2 which should be considered:.
In this case the assumptions of stationarity of all the variables included in the regression and homogeneity of cross-country coefficients are violated. In this case, the simple ordinary least squares OLS approach can produce highly misleading results  , . Therefore, the empirical analysis for the estimation of equation 2 should employ a methodology that accounts for heterogeneous dynamic panels .
To overcome these issues, economists recommend the use of instrumental variables, and more recently panel data techniques such as Pooled Mean Group PMG , discussed in Pesaran et al. However, when the number of cross-section observations is quite large and the time-series dimension is relatively small, as is the case in this paper, the GMM estimator can produce more consistent estimates .
When it comes to practical aspects in promotion and implementation, the e-government concept is realized differently from one country to another, exposing a plethora of national strategies and policies in the area and reflecting a When it comes to practical aspects in promotion and implementation, the e-government concept is realized differently from one country to another, exposing a plethora of national strategies and policies in the area and reflecting a multidimensional nature of the phenomenon.
In Kazakhstan, because of the strong traditions of unitary governance and centralized structure of political management at all levels of public administration, e-government is regarded both institutionally and technologically as a universal single-entry platform for all ICT-driven initiatives in public administration at both national and local levels. Therefore, in order to understand fully the diffusion of the phenomenon in Kazakhstan, it is necessary to analyze in a holistic manner the development of all projects that per se constitute the core of the national e-government concept as a public platform for all initiatives in the area.
A retrospective analysis of e-government development in Kazakhstan. The development of e-government in Kazakhstan can be regarded as a great example of highly regulated ICT-driven reforms in public administration. Hypothetically, one of the primary reasons for the policy is a relentless desire of central Hypothetically, one of the primary reasons for the policy is a relentless desire of central authorities to increase the global ranking of the country in various e-government listings and ratings.
In fact, since the introduction of the state-run e-government program in , which implementation was eventually materialized in the inauguration of the official e-government platform in , the policymakers of the project have regarded the implementation of the concept as a matter of national priority. Therefore, large-scale financial and human resources have been utilized to introduce and maintain technological, social and political components of the project.
In this regard, the main purpose of this chapter is to analyze the development of ICT-driven public sector reforms in a typical transitional setting, where e-government has played a crucial role in the overall reformation of technological and philosophical aspects in modern Kazakh public administration and governance. Methodology of case study research. The primary purpose of the chapter is to outline the investigation framework of the research, providing the methodological foundation for the whole analysis, which will mostly be based on the case study of the e-government movement in The primary purpose of the chapter is to outline the investigation framework of the research, providing the methodological foundation for the whole analysis, which will mostly be based on the case study of the e-government movement in Kazakhstan in its various dimensions and institutional levels, including but not limited to political, social, economic and technological ones; first, by setting the research questions and shaping the investigation skeleton of the study, determining the key areas of concentration and choosing the appropriate research methods as well as providing some generalizations on expected findings and outcomes of the investigation.
IT in Industry is an open access, peer-reviewed, international online journal, providing a platform for the timely publication of research in a rapidly changing field. Information Technology plays a fundamental role in improving the Information Technology plays a fundamental role in improving the performance and competitiveness of any organisation in the digital world. IT in Industry recognises that contributions from both academia and industry are paramount to the advancement of this field.
Radio, Conflict and Land Grabbing in Sierra Leone: communicating rights and preventing violence through drama. With a focus on entertainment education, this article sheds light on the effects of radio drama in addressing conflict over land governance. The discussion is built around the broadcast of Bush Wahala radio series during the recent land The discussion is built around the broadcast of Bush Wahala radio series during the recent land acquisition process that has taken place in Sierra Leone. Through the analysis of semi-structured interviews conducted by the author with rural farmers affected by this issue, on the one hand, this work generates reflections on the role of radio drama in providing listeners with alternative options to the use of violence and confrontation with the authorities in order to claim land rights; on the other hand, it represents an important contribution to the literature of edutainment in contexts of conflict, with a specific focus on the increasingly complex issue of land grabbing in the developing world.
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One of the key challenges in electronic government e-government is the development of systems that can be easily integrated and interoperated to provide seamless services delivery to citizens. In recent years, Semantic Web technologies In recent years, Semantic Web technologies based on ontology have emerged as promising solutions to the above engineering problems. However, current research practicing semantic development in e-government does not focus on the application of available methodologies and platforms for developing government domain ontologies.
Furthermore, only a few of these researches provide detailed guidelines for developing semantic ontology models from a government service domain. Firstly, a framework adopted from the Uschold and King ontology building methodology is employed to build a domain ontology describing the semantic content of a government service domain.
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Thereafter, UML is used to semi-formally represent the domain ontology. The study aims at: 1 providing egovernment developers, particularly those from the developing world with detailed guidelines for practicing semantic content development in their e-government projects and 2 , strengthening the adoption of semantic technologies in e-government. The study would also be of interest to novice Semantic Web developers who might used it as a starting point for further investigations.
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Fixed broadband Internet access tariff Mobile cellular subscriptions Mobile cellular subscriptions per people Personal computers Personal computers per people 9. International voice traffic out and in, minutes International voice traffic minutes per person 8. Mobile cellular prepaid tariff 4. Telephone lines Telephone lines per people 5. Fixed broadband Internet subscribers Fixed broadband Internet subscribers per people 9.
International Internet bandwidth Mbps International Internet bandwidth bits per person Secure Internet servers Secure Internet servers per 1 million people Internet users per people Daily newspapers 5.