J Immunol. Epub Oct 6. Br J Pharmacol. General function: Involved in monooxygenase activity Specific function: Catalyzes the formation of aromatic C18 estrogens from C19 androgens. J Reprod Fertil. General function: Involved in G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway Specific function: This is a receptor for the tachykinin neuropeptide substance P.
It is probably associated with G proteins that activate a phosphatidylinositol-calcium second messenger system.
Substance P SP , is an amino acid neuropeptide. SP is a member of the tachykinin family of peptides because it induces rapid smooth muscle contraction in guinea pig ileum and rat duodenum.
Neurobiology of substance P and the NK1 receptor.
Other members of the tachykinin family, sharing common carboxyl terminal Phe-X-Gly-Leu-met-NH2 sequences in mammals, include neurokinin A and neurokinin B. SP is localized in the central nervous system as well as in several peripheral tissues, including the entire length of the gastrointestinal tract as well as the colon. The main sources of SP in the gut include the myenteric and submucosal plexus, intrinsic sensory neurons, as well as sensory neurons originating from the dorsal root ganglia.
A newly identified gene, preprotachykinin C gene, encodes for the sequence of a new preprotachykinin protein designated hemokinin HK and produced primarily by hematopoietic cells. NK-1 receptors are present in both small intestine and colon of animals and humans and are localized in a variety of cells, including nerves, smooth muscle, immune cells, glands, endothelial cells, as well as epithelial cells.
Although NK-1 receptors have been associated with several intestinal pathophysiologic conditions see below , NK-2 receptors have been linked mostly with circular muscle contraction, and are localized in circular muscle and muscularis mucosae. Although NK-2 receptors are present predominantly on smooth muscle and, like NK-1, can affect gut motility, NK-3 receptors are expressed predominantly in neurons and can stimulate or diminish muscle contraction indirectly following SP binding to neuronal cells in the submucosal and myenteric nerve plexuses of the gastrointestinal tract.
NK-3 receptors also provide slow excitatory synaptic input to neurons in ganglia of the sphincter of Oddi.
Thus, both NK-2 and NK-3 receptors affect motility responses in the GI, but there is very little evidence that they are involved in neuroimmune interactions. PMID: These are fatty acids with an aliphatic tail that contains between 4 and 12 carbon atoms. Organic compounds. Lipids and lipid-like molecules.
Fatty Acyls. Fatty acids and conjugates. Medium-chain fatty acids. Amino fatty acids Straight chain fatty acids Amino acids Monocarboxylic acids and derivatives Carboxylic acids Organopnictogen compounds Organic oxides Monoalkylamines Hydrocarbon derivatives Carbonyl compounds. Medium-chain fatty acid Amino fatty acid Straight chain fatty acid Amino acid or derivatives Amino acid Carboxylic acid derivative Carboxylic acid Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives Primary amine Organooxygen compound Organonitrogen compound Organic nitrogen compound Primary aliphatic amine Amine Carbonyl group Organic oxygen compound Organopnictogen compound Organic oxide Hydrocarbon derivative Aliphatic acyclic compound.
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Property Value Reference Melting Point. Property Value Source Water Solubility.
Many substances induce neuropeptide release from sensory nerves in the lung, including allergen, histamine, prostaglandins, and leukotrienes. Neurogenic inflammation also participates in virus-associated respiratory infection, non-productive cough, allergic rhinitis, and sarcoidosis.
Substance P Antibody (NC1/34HL) | SCBT - Santa Cruz Biotechnology
SP regulates smooth muscle contractility, epithelial ion transport, vascular permeability, and immune function in the gastrointestinal tract. Elevated levels of SP and upregulated NK-1R expression have been reported in the rectum and colon of patients with inflammatory bowel disease IBD , and correlate with disease activity.
Glucocorticoids may attenuate neurogenic inflammation by decreasing NK-1R expression in epithelial and inflammatory cells and increasing production of neutral endopeptidase NEP , an enzyme that degrades SP.