The recent debate over word choice has taken turns that undermine humanitarian principles and cloud the view of how migration is unfolding. The general impression Return migration to Pakistan is diverse. Pakistan receives returnees from the Middle East, as well as from Europe and North America, which reflects broader Pakistani migration Return migration has been modest, however, even in the wake of the Citizenship and naturalization legislation in France, Norway, and the UK has changed substantially more during the s than in previous decades.
In which areas of citizenship policy have changes occurred? And how do these changes relate to the trend of reinvigorating the citizenship institution to increase social cohesion? This blog How and when is national identity and nationhood debated, and what does this reveal about the boundaries of national identity? Drawing on analyses of opinion pieces from French and British newspapers, we examine how national identity is debated, contested and challenged in light of national and international news events during Now that Ramadan, the Muslim month of fasting, is ending, most Muslims — in Oslo, as elsewhere in the world — celebrate the festival of Eid.
It is a time for celebration. For many Muslims, it is also a time to help those less well-off than themselves, either through the Research collaboration across Global South-North divides is an articulated aim in many academic institutions. In this blog we point to the value added, as well as some of the challenges of such collaboration, based on our experiences from collaborative research on migration and transnationalism in Pakistan and Norway.
We are In most post-conflict contexts, returning diaspora members contribute to reconstruction efforts; including through investments in businesses. While many invest in traditional ventures, others introduce new ideas for entrepreneurship. In Somalia, diaspora businesses are visible and valued; especially for their development and peacebuilding potential. The conflict has affected Somali citizens inside A human tragedy has been unfolding in the Bay of Bengal.
Thousands of poor Rohingya and Bangladeshi refugees and job seekers have been the victims of xenophobia, cynical smugglers and incapable governance. So far very little. Yet this crisis is exactly the kind of non-traditional trans-national In recent years this frustration has received increased attention both in Norway and internationally. The international diplomatic repercussions of this crisis International migration and corruption have several things in common: they play key roles in development processes, feature prominently on policy agendas, and are the subject of large research literatures.
However, the connections between migration and corruption, whether in the country of origin or along migration trajectories, remain relatively unexplored. There is little one can do, however, to impose effective border controls at sea.
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Operation Triton does Immigrants typically have attachments in two directions: to the country in which they live, and to their country of origin. These attachments are often discussed in terms of integration and transnationalism, respectively. A new conceptual framework, which we call the matrix of attachment, enables us to examine immigrant integra-tion and One is of Slavomir, who has made his everyday life easier by changing his name to Stian. One response to critiques is to highlight The European Union has made it clear that bombs were not part of the plan for war against people smuggling after all.
The alleged plans for bombing had already caused widespread alarm and protest. But what would Humanitarianism and Return: Compromising Protection In many contexts around the world, states use funding for humanitarian programming as an active part of their attempts to manage populations displaced by conflict. Humanitarian aid to refugees and internally displaced is commonly understood as a temporary activity that ends when people will return Should the EU cooperate with regional states to manage and control migration from the Horn of Africa?
Proponents of greater migration control within the EU increasingly favor the use of political and economic incentives as an approach to prevent migration from the Horn of Africa and elsewhere, effectively through increasingly Across the EU, mounting internal political pressures have intensified debates about migration and asylum, encouraging policies Under the tripartite agreement entered into between Afghanistan, Norway and the UN High Commissioner for Refugees UNHCR , Afghans who are refused asylum in Norway have two choices: either to take advantage of the assisted repatriation programme; or to reject this offer and risk being forcibly deported and returned to Kabul Migration affects the lives of women in many ways.
Migration researchers can play a role in making the battles apparent and showing how they matter. Immigrants have become integrated into Norwegian society with degrees of success that range between two possible extremes: strong attachment and total alienation. In debates about integration, ethnicity and country of origin are often claimed to be the key factors for determining whether or not integration will be successful. Other important Rejected asylum seekers often resist the legal obligation to return. Such programmes are described as less politically costly, more Throughout the Considerations about return are a persistent dimension of identity work in migrant populations.
Somali women are often perceived as a homogenous social group perpetually living in destitution as victims of mutilation, sexual exploitation, famine, and war. Whilst we must not ignore atrocities committed against them, it is important to demonstrate that Somali women are not passive victims, and to not disregard a history A record number of refugees have arrived by boat in southern Europe this summer.
Norway should voice its support for a common European solution to the issue of boat migrants crossing the Mediterranean. Last year this would have been front-page news, but now each new arrival — or each refugee The population of the Philippines is surpassing million in late July Emigration generally has the strongest impacts in countries with relatively small populations, such as El Salvador, Armenia and Samoa. In fact, as the scatterplot shows, only five Eid marks the end of Ramadan, the month of fasting.
After the Eid prayer, families and friends gather to celebrate. This is a time for dressing in fine clothing, eating Ramadan, the ninth month of the Islamic calendar, has just started. A time of fasting for devout Muslims, this is also the time of year when most Muslims pay their annual zakat. The main purpose of migration policy is to affect migration flows.
Sometimes, however, policies have other, unintended effects. Such consequences are easily overlooked in policy evaluations, which usually focus on the effectiveness of a given policy in terms of its intended aim. The field of education has been at the forefront of social policy concerns for at least three decades in the UK. The debate around integration and education revolves mainly around two aspects: the ability of migrants to integrate, depending on their level of education; and the challenges brought by migrants On July 22nd , I was home from work when I heard a loud blast. It sounded like thunder.
Strange that I had not seen any lightning, with a sound this loud, I thought before carrying on with household chores. Half an hour later I took a break, logging onto If you look at the return programs organized by European governments usually in partnership with the IOM you will notice that return and reintegration are often mentioned together, as if they always coincide.
However, reintegration however it is defined does not automatically follow return. Instead we defined it based on temporal dimensions, by interviewing people who had either come to Norway during their childhood, before turning 14, or recently, in the past years. This was, For a society such as the Norwegian one, public trust in the state is a cornerstone. But what happens when that trust is lacking? Members Coordinator. Upcoming Events Wed, 25 Sep Solidarity and membership in Scandinavia today Wed, 25 Sep Governing and experiencing citizenship in Multicultural Scandinavia Tue, 24 Sep Does citizenship matter?
Or perhaps not? Tue, 29 Oct What lies behind the fantasy of return migration? The RRT has denied the transformative political potential of gay and lesbian identity — that visibility is itself a part of transforming oppressive and discriminatory cultural attitudes just by being. Shane Phelan has argued, in the context of the US, that. If they are too public and for lesbians this is easily achieved as the expectation that they be private is doubly inscribed upon them as women , they are transgressive, repellent and in danger of being rejected as deserving of the abuse they have experienced.
This paper has concerned itself with the questions of empathy and imagination, and concludes that it is these qualities, more than any legal norm, that require investigation and change in refugee law on sexuality. Their absence means that many decision-makers are unable to see the other, the applicant, and cannot receive stories from them in any real way. Decision-makers have imposed self onto other and projected their own sense of what the sexual, the public and the private are and ought to be. To date this projection has had disastrous consequences for lesbian and gay asylum-seekers.
Club cultures : boundaries, identities and otherness / Silvia Rief - Details - Trove
My deepest thanks to Catherine for her inspiration as a collaborator and colleague, and for her comments on this tentative first paper from our joint research. In our next paper from this research we will focus upon questions of identity and evidence. Thanks also to Arlie Loughnan for her meticulous research assistance and case analysis. The tribunal decisions are unreported unless otherwise indicated. Canada and Australia both use administrative tribunal processes to determine refugee status using the same definition, but there are some important differences also.
In Australia the RRT sits with a single member and conducts a full merits review as a form of appeal from initial decisions of the delegate of the Minister for Immigration and Multicultural Affairs. Tribunal decisions are not binding on later tribunals, although appellate decisions from higher courts are. There is therefore much variation in the application of the refugee definition to different circumstances. Beliefs and values do not exist in a world of pure abstraction, but rather always operate with and on specific assumptions about and perceptions of the state of the world.
The Court did not consider whether the Chinese cultural norms to which the RRT referred were discriminatory. Nor did it refer to the discriminatory nature of prosecutions for public expressions of sexuality It is submitted, on the contrary, that the element of discrimination in the area of public sexual expression ought to be taken into account by decision-makers. If a refugee can demonstrate discriminatory application of the law, prosecution and punishment for public sexual expression should be seen as persecution on account of membership in a particular social group.
This led me to think about the times I have had sex in public, and why. For me it was mostly as a teenager in cars and parks. This use of public space was not a result of my lesbianism; rather I was young and simply had nowhere else to go. A lot of young people in Australia and other Western nations have sex in cars and parks and other public or semi-public places because their homes are occupied by parents. A lot of Western decision-makers, regardless of their sexuality, were once young and presumably had similar experiences. So why can they not empathise?
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Perhaps their feeling of the alien-ness of gay men is so strong that they cannot even begin to connect it to their own experience and therefore think only of what it would be like to see the men, rather than be the men. The hurt and pain entailed can only be fully comprehended by the individual who is violated. In reproducing and representing violence academics are ever only visitors to the violent experiences of others. We tread a fine line between the need to maintain the integrity of these experiences and our desire to employ them so as to resist the social conditions that make them possible in the first place.
The first two of the four claims were successful. This claim was successful. The claim was unsuccessful. Amnesty notes that by at least 18 countries had granted asylum on the grounds of sexuality-related persecution: Amnesty International, above n 11 , In this early article, Walker attempts to subvert this tradition by telling stories from a number of Australian refugee cases brought by Chinese gay men, interlacing these stories with a discussion of same-sex love in China through history, inset with text boxes with notes on terminology, poems and scraps of historical documents relating to homosexuality in China.
When decision-makers compared sexuality with religion or political views, it was often done in a positive way, as they appeared to reach by analogy for something they could understand. For example, when the Federal Court rejected in obiter the opinion in a RRT case that the applicant could evade persecution by marrying and having a secret gay life, the judge reasoned by analogy that one could not ask a person persecuted for political views strangely he chose fascism to marry a communist in order to conceal that view and avoid persecution: Bhattachan v Minister for Immigration and Multicultural Affairs  FCA Unreported , Hill J, 27 April .
No police force is without rogues. The tribunal accepts if an exclusive, intimate, consensual and adult relationship, whether heterosexual or homosexual, faces a real chance of being shattered by the state, or society in general, or even by some small but ultimately highly effective sector of it, for reasons linked to the Convention , such as malignancy towards the group to which the partners in that relationship belong, then they face a real chance of Convention -related persecution.
Case law has always started with stories called the facts. Indeed some claim rather rashly that this has already been achieved. For example, Jeffrey Weeks states:. Counter-discourses, oppositional knowledges, grassroots politics and self-activity have undermined traditional political forms, and begun to define new agendas.
There has been an accumulation of new social and cultural capital, where new voices, new collective subjectivities have put forward their claims through a variety of social and political practices For consistency and simplicity I have not used the initials in the citations of the Canadian IRB cases. These figures are not available. This use of country information will be discussed in more detail in later articles drawn from this research.
The quality of information varies tremendously, and in some cases has included extracts from such dubious sources as tourist travel guides and internet sex sites. The information on bars was repeated at greater length, with the warnings included but under-emphasised, in a case. The IRB on occasion also used inappropriate and arguably irrelevant information. See, for example, a case concerning a gay man from Eritrea where the IRB held that as there was so little country information on gay men in Eritrea it would reason by analogy using the government response to heterosexual women who experienced domestic violence: IRB Reference No V Unreported, R Vanderkooy, 29 July —.
The Canadian IRB does not have to publish reasons for positive decisions but internal guidelines recommend publication for certain kinds of cases. Cases which are interesting or novel, such as cases using the Canadian Gender Guidelines see below n 83 and accompanying text , are more likely to be published — so there may be an over-representation of lesbian applicants in the available decisions. All 12 were unsuccessful, while the overall success rate of applicants from China before the RRT from — was 6. All 11 were unsuccessful, while the overall success rate of applicants from the Philippines before the RRT from — was 0.
They were from Argentina one successful , Chile three successful , Colombia one successful, one unsuccessful , Iran one unsuccessful , Mexico two successful, one unsuccessful , Russia two successful, one unsuccessful , Trinidad one unsuccessful , Ukraine one unsuccessful and Venezuela one successful.
Club Cultures: Boundaries, Identities and Otherness by Silvia Rief (Paperback, 2012)
For a fuller analysis of the experience and meaning of violence against lesbians, see Gail Mason, The Spectacle of Violence: Homophobia, Gender and Knowledge Gay men did on occasion face such reasoning too, for instance where they alleged family ostracism or pressure to marry. She notes how insiders work hard to refashion narratives of violence to make them into an exception, a joke or a one-off incident: Mari Matsuda, above n 38 , — See also a Australian case where a lesbian from Colombia had experienced harassment and discrimination from a variety of sources but was predominantly fearful of a violent female ex-partner.
Here also the absence of state protection for lesbians subject to violence was completely ignored. On her evidence her husband was only violent towards her and not towards other homosexuals. I consider that it was pique and jealousy towards her as an individual that motivated his abuse of her. In stating this, I accept that the unfamiliarity of being supplanted by a female rather than the normal male lover would have caused him to resent the situation more. However, I am not satisfied that the applicant would not have been abused by him if she had been in a heterosexual extra-marital relationship.
For instance, information that gay men had a number of bars or cruising spots in a city was used to deduce that lesbians were not oppressed in that place. See Macklin, above n 3 , for an overview and comparison of the Australian and Canadian guidelines, as well as the American Gender Consideration Guidelines. In his groundbreaking study of sex in public toilets in the USA in , Laud Humphreys estimated that of the approximately 50 oral sex encounters between men that he witnessed, most lasted from 10 seconds to a maximum of five minutes, with many around one minute in duration: see Laud Humphreys, Tearoom Trade However, I do not think we can necessarily assume that men who use beats in other countries will be similar.
In Australia, for example, heterosexually-identifying men may be more likely than gay-identifying men to use beats because they do not want to be seen in gay clubs or sex-on-premises venues, whereas in Somalia beats may be the only venues available to both gay and non-gay-identifying men looking for sex with men. Moreover, the men I am discussing here do self-identify as gay, having made a refugee claim on that basis, so I use gay sex rather than male—male sex in this context.
Also note that the Spartacus International Gay Guide , referred to as a source of country information in several Australian decisions concerning lesbians, is in fact a guidebook targeted exclusively at gay men. The applicant stood up to police and was arrested and detained. The RRT suggested that she must have been provocative:. Her own description of her first encounter with the police which resulted in her two week detention suggests that she confronted them as much as they challenged her.
That is, the Tribunal is unable to conclude that she was simply a victim and did not contribute to being taken into custody. It notes that she was not ground down by this treatment but attempted to sue the local police. For a detailed discussion of the development of English law on this issue see Leslie Moran, The Homosexual ity of Law Both men were young and one of them was under the NSW age of consent for male—male sex at the time of the incident. It is possible that the Canadian case law has focused more upon internal flight as an option for applicants to avoid persecution.
Individuals of a variety of sexual orientations live side by side in a society like Ghana and practise their sexual orientations privately without feeling a need to proclaim these orientations to the general public. The public manifestation of homosexuality is not an essential ingredient of being homosexual. The Applicant appears to be a man for whom discretion is not an unreasonable imposition.
In that case the RRT had not considered this point and had proceeded to find in favour of the applicant. However in many cases, particularly regarding applicants who have had secret lives up to the point of departure, the RRT has found that future persecution is unlikely because of the past discretion. The seemingly ironic expectation of being able to maintain anonymity in what is after all a public toilet, coupled with the equally ironic anticipation of meeting someone with common purpose in such places, would appear, from much of the evidence submitted by the Applicants, to have nothing to do with a lack of concern about being detected.
The lack of a precedent system is again made apparent when it is noted that later Australian cases ignore this analysis. A distinction should be drawn between a lifestyle involving anonymous, and perhaps casual, encounters following meetings in well-known public meeting places, on the one hand, and a lifestyle based on long-term cohabitation, or virtual cohabitation, on the other. It is possible to speak of the former situation as public though discreet, and to speak of the latter situation as private but not discreet.
In that case the applicant stated that he did not want anonymous casual sex and, although single, hoped instead to settle down with a partner. His claim was successful. On her own evidence she is a quiet and discreet person, unlikely to act in a manner to provoke the authorities or public opinion against her and her long term partner lives in Australia.
On the other hand, it also shows the positive side of technology as well: how it can serve as a conduit of intimacy and humor.
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In his work, humans and technologies are not necessarily placed in antagonistic relationships. Another example is seen in My Neighbour Totoro. These aspects suggest that in the contemporary animation industry, Miyazaki occupies an anomalous position. Le Gum, J. Tolkien, and so forth. These influences are manifested in his work. As well, he has traveled widely in Europe: Wales, Sweden, Italy, and other places. It was only after he started traveling abroad, he writes, that he realized the beauty of nature in Japan.
Instead, what I am interested in is the distinctiveness that each culture and customs hold, particularly in the countryside I have no judgment on which cultures are superior to others. Japanese people tend to choose things European to feel exotic. This is probably rooted in a kind of complex toward the West Europe Thus, I try to draw Europe in such a way that viewers watch my work, not simply because it shows Europe, but because it makes them interested in specific aspects of Europe.
Alone, Asian and Female: The Unspoken Challenges of Conducting Fieldwork in Dance Settings
Through his texts, he questions the admiration for the imaginary West that is often presented in anime, by depicting Caucasian characters or Western 51 Miyazaki Hayao and Kurosawa Akira, Nani ga eiga ka What Counts as Cinema? Tokyo: Tokuma shoten, , p. For example, in most cases he depicts neither a technologically advanced, superior West, nor a destructive, modernized West, but rather depicts a pastoral, visually attractive West eg, the settings in Kiki Delivery Service and Nausicaa in the Valley ofthe Wind.
NausicaA in the Greek mythology was a beautiful and imaginative girl, quick on her feet. She loved nature and playing the harp and singing more than the attention of her suitors or pursuing materialistic happiness. She, unafraid, saved Odysseus and nursed his wounds when he drifted ashore covered in blood. NausicaA watched his ship until it was out of sight.
According to legend, she never married, but traveled from court to court as the first female minstrel. Although Disney animations, particularly recent ones, also deal with some of these issues, they present them in a light and simplistic manner. Cavallaro, p. In his works one can observe his intention to combine elements from Western narratives and settings with elements from Japanese narrative and visual traditions as well.
To a certain extent, this harks back to the way Disney influenced U. Thus, it is open for debate how far his insistence mentioned above—his respect for cultural specificities—is actualized in his work. It also but at the very end of the film, when she reunites with her parents, she acts in a way that is similar to her behavior at the beginning of the film i. In subsequent chapters we will see in more detail the ways that Miyazaki does or does not succeed in representing difference in ideologically nuanced and useful ways.
Based on the discussion above, what can be said here is that Miyazaki consciously positions his work in opposition to dominant Western discourses of identity, which he regards as too simplistic. This is because their receptions particularly in the U. Film critics in Europe were amazed by the production of masterpieces in Japan—a country that had appeared to be completely devastated after its defeat in the Second World War.
Moreover, Miyazaki frequently says that he does not have foreign viewers in mind when making his anime. It is problematic, for example, to simply assume that the popularity of the semi-historical Princess Mononoke outside Japan derives from Orientalist expectations to which it caters. At that time Ghibli staff commented that it is pretentious of Japanese people to assume that foreign viewers could not understand Mononoke because of its historical setting or the uniqueness of Japanese culture.
The perception of national identity through film representation is a multifaceted issue, which I have discussed only in very general terms in this chapter. Subsequent chapters will address this question in greater detail, with reference to specific Miyazaki films. The examinations point toward explaining a link between the identities circulated through the texts and the resulting cultural identities potentially articulated by utilizing these texts.
As mentioned in previous chapters, Disney animations have been contributing to media-based ideology creation since the Os, and, according to many critics, in combination with theme parks, they have also served an Anglo-phallogocentric discourse. However, a better understanding of the complex mechanisms of identity articulation via media representations requires taking into account the context of the globalized animation industry, as representations presented in the emerging medium of anime have become quite influential since the s and s, rivaling Western aesthetics.
Thus, although North Said, Orientalism, p. They attempt to demonstrate how the theoretical and historical discussions of previous chapters are or are not embodied or executed in actual texts. This is done because, as Martin Barker asserts, the production history behind a media product is essential for a comprehensive understanding of the media text,2 as the text is always produced and interpreted in a specific temporal and spatial context.
The story was written by Carl Binder screenplay , Susannah Grant screenplay , Phillip LaZebnick screenplay , and many others who contributed to additional story materials. The story was written by Robert D. San Souci, as well as many others who contributed to additional story materials. The lyrics quoted above encapsulate the exoticization that is manifested throughout this animation. In fact, the ethnic and other types of representation in the film have sparked intense controversies among the Arab community in the United States and elsewhere.
Although protests against Aladdin in these countries, particularly in Malaysia, ended up quietly backing down, largely due to the difficulty in publicizing their claims, this should not discount the fact that some conservative Islamic communities did pressure the government to ban Aladdin because of its offensive depiction of Islamic culture. See Timothy R. White and J. We learn that the sultan of Agrabah is secretly being controlled by the evil vizier, Jafar, who is also a sorcerer and is plotting to take over the sultan position for himself.
He has spent years searching for the Cave of Wonders, in which lies the magic lamp whose power he hopes to exploit. The sultan is having problems finding a husband for his daughter, Princess Jasmine. Jafar hypnotizes the sultan and convinces him to give his magic ring to Jafar, claiming that he needs the ring to find Jasmine a husband. The Arabian Nights Entertainment was first translated into French in 17, and into English in New York: Thomas Y.
Crowell Co. Amidst the chaos in the street, she is rescued by a street scamp, Aladdin. Aladdin becomes attracted to the free-spirited Jasmine, but by law Jasmine is allowed to wed only a royal suitor. Jafar then lies to Jasmine, claiming that Aladdin had been executed for allegedly kidnapping her. Disguised as an old man, Jafar takes Aladdin to the Cave of Wonders, telling him that if he brings back the lamp from the Cave without touching any treasure, he will be rewarded.
Aladdin successfully finds the lamp, but his pet money, Abu, attempts to take a jewel, which causes them to be trapped inside. Although Aladdin and Abu initially manage to escape the cave with the help of a flying carpet, in evading Jafar they are forced back into it. In the cave, Aladdin discovers that the lamp is home to Genie, who serves his master with any three wishes—except that he cannot force a person to fall in love.
Aladdin, having fallen in love with Jasmine, wishes to become a prince in order to try to win her love. Although Jasmine is initially not interested in this seemingly typical rich prince, he eventually wins her love after taking her on a romantic ride on the flying carpet. Meanwhile, Jafar finds out that Aladdin has the lamp and, with his wisecracking parrot, lago, manages to steal it. Jasmine and her father, the real sultan, defy Jafar, at which point he makes his second wish: to become the most powerful sorcerer in the world.
Jafar then reveals that Prince Ali Ababwa is merely a street scamp named Aladdin, and imprisons him. When Aladdin tries to get the lamp back, Jafar turns himself into a giant snake in order to kill Aladdin. While Aladdin is no longer a prince and cannot marry Jasmine by law, the re-instated sultan is convinced that Aladdin has proven his self-worth. The sultan therefore changes the law so that the princess is able to marry anyone she chooses. In the end, Aladdin and Jasmine begin their new life together as a happy couple. Table 4. Because the original Arabian Nights Entertainment, from which Aladdin is adapted, was an amalgam of tales from Persia, India and Arabia, it is unclear where the mythical city ofAgrabah is supposed to be located, or who its inhabitants are supposed to be in cultural or ethnic terms.
These representations almost perfectly correspond with a comment made by Mazin B. He describes ii Said, Orientalism, p. Qumsiyeh, more specifically asserts that many of films considered offensive are subsidized by Michael Eisner-run Disney. For example, the merchant in the opening scene wears a huge turban and has a strong accent; the palace guards all have turbans, beards, and big noses; and the leader of those guards uses rough language.
Differently put, the scene implies that Jasmine, an epitome of the Orient, shapes her woridview through the eye, or guidance of the West, as she is incapable of defining herself and others. See, Frank Thomas and Ollie Johnston, p. The villain Jafar could potentially be associated with Saddam Hussein, whose menacing image was foregrounded in a number of publications and news programs.
She mentions the stereotypical images that promoted a characterization of Arabs as enemies found in political cartoons. According to Ella Shohat, the intersection between them was manifested saliently through filmic practice especially from the s to the s when the U. She explains about the system: [e]xoticising and eroticizing the Third World allowed the imperial imaginary to play out its own fantasies of sexual domination. Already in the silent era, films often included eroticized dances, featuring a rather improbably melange of Spanish and Indian dances, plus a touch of belly-dancing.
This figure has been removed due to copyright restrictions. The figure shows Jasmine with a midriff-exposed dress and leaning against her pet tiger. TV, the continual representation of stereotypical Arab female heroines still perpetuates the notion of Arab women as belly-dancers—a compelling sexual icon. Figure 4. When Aladdin takes Jasmine to his hide-out to escape from an angry vendor in town, they are attracted to each other, almost kissing, and she gives a seductive sidelong look to further draw him in.
The figure shows Jasmine looking at Aladdin and gently touching him at the balcony outside her room. The figure shows Jasmine trying to seduce Jafar with her alluring eyes.
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At the next level, the viewers of the film also watch Jasmine as she is presented to their gaze, and watch her being gazed upon by Aladdin and Jafar. Even only temporarily, this draws attention away from the fact that white men have dominated brown men and women, as well as white women, for centuries. Jafar shares some features with Governor Rateliffe in Pocahontas and Councilor Chi Fu in Mulan, who also appear as undesirable characters, discussed in the next two chapters. Fi2ure 4. Fhure 4. Another example of gendered race in Aladdin is presented by the emasculated sultan and male suitors.
The sultan ofAgrabah, father ofJasmine The sultan put into a clown costume by Jafar It is Jafar, the Oriental who follows white British mannerisms, who is effectively in the position of authority. The sultan easily panics and is overwhelmed when things get tough to handle, and his behavior is sometimes childlike, exemplified in the scene where he yelps with delight while playing with the magic carpet. Feminization of the Orient is also implied through the infantalization of Aladdin as well. It is natural for viewers to compare Aladdin and Jafar in various scenes throughout the film.
He is after all a boy, daydreaming of life in the palace with Jasmine, rather than a realistic grown-up man. Indeed, Jafar treats This figure has been removed due to copyright restrictions. The figure shows the sultan acting like a puppet of Jafar. Moreover, his hysterical laugh and extremely high-pitched voice when he gets the lamp from Aladdin also suggest feminized elements of his representation. This view is useful to understand the process of building characters in Aladdin. Hence it is also arguable that Aladdin is an example of sympathetic representation of Arabs or the Orient.
Racial hierarchy is structured, broadly, on whether one is white or non-white. In this sense, they pass as white, which allows them 24 For the defmitions of those tenns, see Larry D. It has to be noted that colorism also refers to the discrimination against lighter tones by darker ones, although this phenomenon is less discussed. Frances Cress Welsing explores the practice of White supremacy. Jasmine has light, rather pinkish skin, lighter than any other character in the film.
See Peter X. This figure has This figure has been removed been removed due due to copyright to copyright restrictions. It restrictions. It shows It shows the the figure of figure of Jasmine. Aladdin with light tone brown left and Jasmine with pinkish brown right Figure 4. It shows the figure of Razoul and his followers. Razoul with soiled brown skin color 4.
This is, however, problematic because one can never tell whether stereotyping intended to be subversive is identified by viewers as such. In the year it was launched, Aladdin was accused of reinforcing negative stereotypes of Arabs by racialized accents, facial features and so forth. Anti-Arab messages in the film were also pointed out by many Arab-American people, including former spokesperson for the South Bay Islamic Association Yousef Salem, who said that: All of the bad guys [in Aladdin] have beards and large, bulbous noses, sinister eyes and heavy accents, and they are wielding swords constantly.
Genie, in particular demonstrates the fluidity of identity by frequently changing both shape and gender. Genie in drag as a female tour guide, cheer leader, and so on , using the metamorphic nature of animation, deconstructs the myth of fixed gender identities. On the other hand, while his blue skin makes his race ambiguous, it is not too difficult to associate the depiction of Genie with the feminization of Arabs, considering the origin of the story.
In contrast, Xiaomei Chen, as in the quote above, emphasizes that Orientalism and Occidentalism are complementary views. The images and backdrops in the opening scenes, along with the theme song, unfold the essence of Europe. It is so named because of the constant winds that keep it from being swallowed up by the Fukai, a thick jungle whose spores and plants are poisonous to humans, due to their ingestion of pollutants and toxins resulting from the expansion of human technology.
One day, warships from the Tolmekian Empire descend upon the valley. As NausicaA rushes back to the castle, she arrives to fmd a squad of Tolmekian soldiers These tapestries are speculated to be based on Bayeux Tapestry, which has allegedly European origin. All Rights Reserved. Consumed with rage, she engages the soldiers in violent combat, only letting up when one of her Lords, Yupa, intervenes to halt the fight.
Queen Kushana of the Tolmekian Empire, the commander of the invasion force, tells the people of the valley that the Tolmekians intend to bum the Fukai in order to reclaim the earth for humans. In doing so, the empire plans to revive the Giant God Soldiers kyoshinhei who destroyed civilization during the global war, and use them against the Obmu and poisoned forest. During the journey to the Tolmekian capital, Nausica faces death, war, destruction and the truth behind the Seven Days of Fire as she tries to bring peace to the world and save what is left of the ecosystem.
Once airborne, the Tolmekian force is set upon by a Pejiteian craft under the control of Prince Asbel. Asbel hesitates, allowing a Tolmekian soldier to shoot him down. NausicaA boards her glider and flies over to rescue the unconscious Asbel. Back in the valley, Kushana returns and gathers her forces to quash the rebellion.
As she arrives, she sees an advancing Ohmu horde and orders her troops to take up a defensive position around the warship while they prepare a gigantic Fire Demon, the last of the God Soldiers which the Tolmekians have restored. The troops retreat as they see the angry Ohmu horde bearing down on them, while Kushana appears on the hill atop an annored vehicle.
For example, struggles take place between two societies that are racially indistinguishable: the Tolmekians and the people of the Valley of the Wind. West discourse. The Tolmekian Empire, a symbol of Western technological advancement and urbanization, is contrasted with the nature-loving villagers. But when our life gets too convenient, we would not use our brains and go numb. In other words, excessive civilization can destroy human beings. In contrast, culture maintains things or styles that are older, slower, deeper, more inefficient, and more inconvenient, which may require a lot of patience.
But culture can make us wiser and spiritually rich, because we attempt to overcome all inconvenience by our intelligence and ingenuity. LFigure 4. The epitome of monstrosity, the Giant God Soldier was responsible for destroying the world many years ago, and the Tolmekians now wish to access its power to solve new problems. In the end, the revived God Soldier proves not to be strong enough, and it fails. James G. James 0. Carrier Oxford: Clarendon Press, , pp. Miyazaki, Shuppatsuten, p. IFigure 4. This scene also resonates with her memory of a failed attempt to save a baby Ohmu in her childhood.
This does not necessarily refer to a mere reversal of hierarchy, where one power still subsumes the other, but suggests fluid power dynamics, through which two parties go on in different directions without interfering with each other. It emphasizes the importance of balance between harmony with nature and modernization, just as Japan has survived because of its modernization owing to Western technology. Carrier Oxford: Clarendon Press, Sailor Moon, Rose of Versailles, etc.
Minamata disease was first discovered in Kumamoto prefecture, Japan, in It was caused by the release of mercury in the industry wastewater from a chemical factory, which continued from to People who ate shellfish in the region suffered from mercury poisoning. Deaths from this disease continued over more than thirty years. In addition, the soundtrack of the film features both European and Asian orchestral and vocal traditions.
For example, Kushana—the epitome of Western technology—is represented not only as victimizer but also as victim. She has an artificial arm thanks to Western technology , which she gets after her own is ripped off by one of the giant insects spawned by the pollution from Western modernization. Moreover, Kushana is not completely secure in her position as dictator, as she is threatened by her second-in-command Kurotawa, who waits for the opportunity to take her place.
The politics of vision in the scheme of racialization is also intertwined with gendering, in which the white woman is often glorified and the Oriental woman remains or becomes invisible or non-existent. However, what Nausicaa represents is largely white Western female figures, and this means that the non-white female body can avoid being exposed to a male gaze on the screen.
Instead, the text of Nausicaa creates a fantasy space where non-white women can not only avoid being objects of a male gaze, but can also themselves become lookers at white female bodies. Related to this discussion is sexualization of the white Western female body. This idea is drawn from debates among both academic and fan communities, particularly on whether NausicaA is a sexualized figure.
A significant number of anhine also began to feature female warriors who, unlike female anime protagonists prior to the s, fight for justice against evil forces in grander settings, beyond mundane day-to-day troubles. About female anime figures in the s, see Chapter 3. One of the most striking scenes in this regard is where NausicaA presents her violent side when, finding that her father has been murdered, she attacks the Tolmekian soldiers with her sword.
Her power and ability to fly are acquired through perseverance and self-confidence, instead of inherently given magical power. Indeed, we hardly meet any male characters who hold authority in this fihn. We must further be attentive to the hybridization of femininity and masculinity and the gender fluidity or transgression of gender categories demonstrated through NausicaA and Kushana. Kurenai no buta Porco Rosso This pig [in the film] embodies part of me. It was my dream since childhood to have a snug hideout in the Adriatic Ocean and fly in by seaplane whenever I want to. Projecting himself through the protagonist—a middle-aged man already past his heyday who gets turned into a pig—Miyazaki demonstrates his perception of socio-political issues both explicitly and symbolically.
Against this background, it is remarkable how characters in the film try to enjoy their lives as much as possible, giving the viewers energy to go through difficulties in their daily lives. Overlapped with his own postwar experience and his own struggles to come to terms with war and national identity, the setting of Porco Rosso is also a perfect site for Miyazaki to express his worldview. The pig-faced protagonist, Porco Rosso real name Marco Pagott , is listening to a radio, dozing in a deck chair, on a small island in the Adriatic Sea.
In the next sequence we see Marco, a heroic bounty hunter, flying his beloved Sovoia S. Berlini had just married Gina, the owner of Hotel Adriano, an elegant, beautiful, and intelligent woman whom all seaplane pilots in the region, including Marco, are drawn to. Disillusioned with war and despondent at the loss of his friends, Marco becomes cynical, and is transformed into a pig by a mysterious spell.
Those adversaries plot against Marco and hire the clumsy Donald Curtis, a snobbish American ace of Italian lineage who longs to become a Hollywood star, to challenge him. On his way to Milan to fix his damaged seaplane, Marco is attacked by Curtis; refusing to return fire, Marco is shot down. After salvaging the wreck of his plane and towing it to Milan, Marco is welcome by the master mechanic at Piccolo Company and his seventeen-year-old granddaughter Fio, who has just returned from the United States after finishing her studies.
Marco agrees to let Fio design the modifications for his seaplane, and learns that with all the men away looking for jobs due to the Depression, the work will be carried out by the womenfolk. With the political climate changing, the government considers nonconformists like Marco unpatriotic and an enemy of the state.
The resourceful womenfolk come up with a plan: Marco will take Fio with him so that they can tell the authorities that she is being held hostage while they work on the plane. When Marco and Fio arrive at his hideaway, Curtis and the air pirates show up and threaten Marco. Curtis is immediately smitten with Fio and proposes to her. As Carrier emphasizes, Orientalism and Occidentalism operate in a dialectical manner, feeding off of each other. In my dissertation, I do not particularly distinguish between them. Chen suggests that a glamorous depiction of the West can be a powerful weapon against the dominant ruling ideology within the country in this case, traditional Confucian culture , enunciating an anti-official statement.
In other words, this type of Occidentalism, revealing intra-national instead of inter-national or ethnic power dynamics, can be used for political liberation movements within a country. Thus, for instance, the narrative of He shang deconstructs symbols of Chinese national pride—the dragon and yellow earth—and instead conveys them as cynical, conservative, and confining.
The narrative is not based on historical facts, but resorts to the mechanism of rhetoric, which operates through interplays of history, poetry, and politics. Miyazaki is known for his sensitivity to socio-political issues in Japan as well as abroad, and he describes contemporary Japan as being a country that lost integrity and is confused in its identity, where people hate their own faces. Although Miyazaki does not illustrate negative aspects of Japan onscreen as does He shang of China, the imagery of the West in Porco Rosso is depicted beautifully and romantically, despite the harsh realities in s Italy.
For instance, Fio, who has studied aeronautical design in the United States, embodies the technological excellence of America, and reminds us that these Western technologies have been incorporated into Japanese cultural identity formation. Through Marco, Miyazaki shows that national pride does not necessarily have to derive from an extreme dedication to patriotism, but can be re-established by embracing integrity on a personal level. One of the most striking yet problematic scenes is the flashback to a World War I battle.
The brief scene depicts Marco watching his dead comrades rising into a shining river of light in the sky. This style of glorification for the war dead recalls the beautified images of kamikaze suicide pilots used during World War II to promote patriotic spirit among Japanese troops. Thus, while this scene seems to idealize patriotic death, it can also be understood as a reminder ofthe misery brought by war, as well as a warning against recent militaristic nationalism.
However, observations in this chapter attest to the enduring nature of Orientalism. In addition, the persistence of the Orientalist view is also sustained by the continuity of 64 Said, Orientalism, p. These two anime underscore the interrelation of the Orient and the Occident, which may help viewers understand their cultural identities. If we see NausicaA as a sexualized white body as Murase suggests, the anime has overcome stereotypical racial depiction, yet by sacrificing gender subversion.
There are further similarities, and also differences, in the ways that representations in these animated folkiores articulate present national identities. At various stages of the production, the creative team consulted with Native American scholars and storytellers to incorporate authentic aspects of the Powhatan culture into the film. See Mark I. Captain John Smith leads a band of greedy and racist English sailors and soldiers to the New World to plunder its treasure for England. Pocahontas is a bright, adventurous, nature-loving, and motherless young woman. As Pocahontas and Smith meet and while she tries to open his eyes to an understanding of this New World, they fall in love.
Pocahontas and Smith then Chow, pp. Thomas, an inexperienced settler, kills one of the tribe members, Kocoum, but Smith lets the natives think he is responsible, so he is condemned to death. In the end, Smith and Pocahontas must part so he can recover from the injury, but they know that their spirits will be forever joined, and that their lives are richer for the love they share.
I was honored to be asked by them That is, the historical maneuvering of Pocahontas brings about conflicts not only between white Disney and the native, but also between whites: British and Americans. In the fantasy world of Disney, Native Americans do not seem to suffer the tremendous pains evident in historical accounts. Villagers in the animation are saddened; however, their pain would not be remotely close to the pain actually experienced over the period of colonization.
The narrative depicts whites as rational and moral victims who try to compromise with the barbarian natives, who are in turn depicted as cruel and vulgar, living in nature without any concept of compromise. Shirley R. Steinberg and Joe L. Kincheloe Oxford: Westview Press, , p. The figure shows Smith and Pocahontas holding hands surrounded by swirling leaves.
The most recent among them is the Hollywood made live-action film, The New World , and it also carries over a significant romantic tone, though it underplays the image of a handsome, white, blond-haired male as a savior of red women. An explicit example is the way Pocahontas moves, running and climbing trees like Tarzan. There is so much that I can teach you. We can improve the life of savages all over the world.
Then Smith quickly adds: Not thatyou [Pocahontas] are savage,. Undoubtedly, there is no way that his categorization of savage can exclude Pocahontas, since she is a member of the native tribe. Pocahontas, walking among rocks and trees, is shot from a lower camera angle, which unmistakably emphasizes her animalistic attributes. Relating to the identity formation of natives and whites, Jack Zipes, argues that the plot of Disney animations often represents Oedipal desire lurking in a young male character of the story.
That is, the plot progresses in a way that the boy tries to humiliate his father and to take away what his father considers as most important. Throughout the film, the bodyguard never speaks. The portrayal of him suggests how it is impossible for the native to get used to Western modernity, or even if the native tries to be like a white, he can never be one.
The depiction of the bodyguard also draws the problematic of vision. He is not only caricatured and laughed at, but more importantly, he turns into a spectacle for laughter to the viewers, as well as people in the street of London. She argues that: [t]he new wave of culture criticism still assumes that we must either be a subject who partakes in the power of gazing or else be an object that is by implication the object of a pornographic gaze By definition, this self grants priority to an embodied subject over the body as an object.
According to the logic governing such thinking.. One of the most striking examples of the politics of vision is in the scene where Smith and Pocahontas encounter for the first time. The mechanism of vision determines the positionality between the native and whites. Similarly, when for the first time Pocahontas faces Smith, she shyly touches her hair and looks up at Smith, not directly at him. Both instances emphasize the hierarchy which puts white colonizers in the position of power and the natives under their control.
This sense of unease and disconcertedness may further urge the settlers to re-confirm their self-identity, which contributes to igniting conflicts between natives and whites. See, Chow, p. The discrepancy in interpretations between Native Americans and the Anglo conmiunities underlines the difficulty and complexity of destabilizing a binary system in racial representations.
Disney may be able to reverse the assumed positions ofwhites and natives, but is unable to deconstruct the system itself. Through this process, Pocahontas becomes a perfect site for myth-making, a site for Anglo-Americans to come to escape from historical reality. The women actually wanted to die. This co-dependent relationship between brown and white men to subjectivize brown women, discussed by Spivak, parallels the one between red and white men toward red women in Pocahontas.
Smith white saves Pocahontas red from a loveless marriage to Kocoum red , as expected by her father red. Ultimately, Pocahontas successfully positions the groups of people involved in the hierarchal order ofwhite males on top, red males and symbolically white females next, and red females at the bottom. Can the Powhatan speak? The fixed image of natives on display is 27 Chow, p.
The former perspective is taken by Spivak, for example, and the latter by those such as Krieteva. These interactions determine the positionality between the groups involved. This implies that Pocahontas begins to think and to act like the colonizer, whether she is willing to or not. Pocahontas speaks, but her speech and her behaviors is after all formed predominantly by Anglo standards. Sarah Harasym London: Routledge, , p.