When oxidised to sulfur trioxide SO 3 its reaction with water leads to formation of sulfuric acid often formed as fine nanoparticles.
There is an interesting graph showing sulfur dioxide emission trends from various sources that starts from but only extends to ; so missing almost two decades of key data. Several acid gas removal processes are discussed including the calcium-based process that involves partial aerial oxidation of first-formed calcium sulfite to very stable calcium sulfate Scheme II. This process is widely used in coal-based power stations.
More expensive sodium-based processes using sodium carbonate or hydroxide are then considered but in all of these situations disposal of spent solution or solid is required that can be expensive today. Problems associated with the oxidation of sulfur dioxide to sulfur trioxide and thence in the presence of water to sulfuric mist are discussed, but not the deliberate conversion to sulfuric acid when large amounts of sulfur dioxide are available.
Here the clean-up costs are offset by a commercially saleable product. Particulate matter PM emissions down to nanoparticle sizes similar to those of bacteria and virus particles have in recent years attracted growing attention because of their serious health implications. Cyclones are widely used for removal of relatively large particles from process gas streams, and in recent years related technology has been employed in domestic vacuum cleaners.
After outlining fundamental operating principles typical dimensions are given with details such as pressure-drop, before the theoretical collection efficiency limitations are derived that correspond to internal gas rates of between 50 and feet per second. With traditional micron-sized particles removal efficiency decreases with particle size and normally wet scrubbing is employed for removing particles above about a micron in size.
As well as providing particulate control, wet scrubbing can also selectively remove certain gaseous components so serving a dual function. Mechanisms of particle growth in a mist of liquid are reviewed before outlining different types of wet scrubbers and the key factors needed for their design and implementation. Although there was some rearranging of the material from the first edition, it remains effectively the same in the new edition and there is no significant updating of the text or references. The modes of bag failure include fibre weakening during use caused by flexing or chemical attack.
Their design should provide high geometric surface and for optimal performance often a fresh bag is first treated with large particles to encourage the development of a filter cake on the surface to prevent entraining small particles within the fabric that leads to high pressure drop. The last section on design theory is an addition over that in the first edition and includes factors such as the number of compartments as well as an example of a baghouse design. Notwithstanding this the coverage in 15 pages of this important technology for removal of PM is very useful.
In an electrostatic precipitator a potential of several tens of kilovolts is applied to thin wires spaced a few inches apart that run through holes in collector plates. The applied potential is sufficient to form a corona around the wires without flash-over or sparking, and ions from the corona collide with larger particles thus charging them so they migrate to the oppositely charged collecting plate surfaces where they are retained until deliberately removed.
More important for smaller particles is diffusion charging where a charge is acquired by particles moving in a sufficiently high potential gradient. The nature and particularly the resistivity of the particles concerned is important for efficient electrostatic precipitation, and for example flue gas from power plants burning low sulfur coal has to be conditioned by introducing into the gas small amounts of sulfuric acid or its precursor sulfur trioxide.
Book Handbook Of Air Pollution Prevention And Control First Edition 2002
A range of additives have been used in different situations. As mentioned previously rather than have references listed at the end of each chapter as in the first edition, in the second edition they are collected together in eleven pages before a useful general index which occupies a similar number of pages. The updated review of the Clean Air Act is well done and a notable feature is in the much enlarged Chapter 11 on the use of packed towers for absorption of volatile organic compounds that now includes modern metal structured tower packing designs.
Overall this book provides a useful general reference for chemical engineers and others involved with the control of pollution emissions from industrial plants and as such it should be available in appropriate libraries. Since retiring Martyn has maintained research activities with several universities in the UK and overseas, and has honorary positions at some.
His consulting business is thriving with work in a variety of areas many of which are providing new and exciting challenges, additionally novel catalytic systems have been developed and put into production. Reviewed by Martyn V. Introduction When the first edition of this book by Karl B.
Schnelle Jr. Pitts Jr. Mollenhauer, and H. Many technological applications serve this purpose. Incinerators, gravitational settling chambers, electrostatic precipitators, cyclone separators, selective catalytic reduction systems, fabric filters, biofilters, and scrubbers are the main air pollution prevention technologies. The decision of the suitable control devices depends on the type of air pollutants and condition at the sources.
If the amount of pollutants emitted to the atmosphere is decreased, the atmospheric concentrations of the pollutants will also decrease. As a result, exposure to air pollution declines and adverse effects of air pollution on the environment and human health are taken under control.
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Reference work entry First Online: 21 May This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access. Baumbach G Air quality control: formation and sources, dispersion, characteristics and impact of air pollutants — measuring methods, techniques for reduction of emissions and regulations for air quality control. Bell R, Buckinham F. An overview of technologies for the reduction of oxides of nitrogen from combustion furnaces.
Air Pollution Control Technology Handbook, 2nd Ed. A book review
MPR Associates Inc. Cheremisinoff NP Handbook of air pollution prevention and control. EPA Control techniques for volatile organic compound emissions from stationary sources. Heywood JB Internal combustion engine fundamentals, vol